In , the Protectorate was made official, and the title of the head of state was changed to sultan , to repudiate the vestigial suzerainty of the Ottoman sultan, who was backing the Central powers in World War I. His military ambition required him to modernise the country: It was with the help of this newly reborn martial unit that Muhammad Ali imposed his rule over Egypt.
A unified kingdom was founded c. A second period of disunity heralded the arrival of the first foreign ruling dynasty in Egypt, that of the Semitic Hyksos. The first historically attested expression of monotheism came during this period as Atenism. Alexandria was regained for the Byzantine Empire in but was retaken by Amr in The defensive militarisation damaged its civil society and economic institutions. The Muhammad Ali dynasty Main article: In another Egyptian revolt broke out, and in the Copts joined with native Muslims against the government. Christianity was brought to Egypt by Saint Mark the Evangelist in the 1st century. New taxes caused popular discontent. Abbas II was deposed as khedive and replaced by his uncle, Hussein Kamel , as sultan. Fearing a reduction of their control, the UK and France intervened militarily, bombarding Alexandria and crushing the Egyptian army at the battle of Tel El Kebir. Alexandria became the capital city and a centre of Greek culture and trade. Egypt Eyalet Egypt was conquered by the Ottoman Turks in , after which it became a province of the Ottoman Empire. Its construction was financed by European banks. Contemporaneous Lower Egyptian communities coexisted with their southern counterparts for more than two thousand years, remaining culturally distinct, but maintaining frequent contact through trade. This Thirty-first Dynasty of Egypt , however, did not last long, for the Persians were toppled several decades later by Alexander the Great. Climate changes or overgrazing around BC began to desiccate the pastoral lands of Egypt, forming the Sahara. The introduction in of long-staple cotton transformed its agriculture into a cash-crop monoculture before the end of the century, concentrating land ownership and shifting production towards international markets. Egyptian culture flourished during this long period and remained distinctively Egyptian in its religion , arts , language and customs. Temple of Derr ruins in There is evidence of rock carvings along the Nile terraces and in desert oases. The earliest known Lower Egyptian site, Merimda, predates the Badarian by about seven hundred years. This army was joined by another 5, men in and defeated a Byzantine army at the battle of Heliopolis. After the French were defeated by the British, a power vacuum was created in Egypt, and a three-way power struggle ensued between the Ottoman Turks , Egyptian Mamluks who had ruled Egypt for centuries, and Albanian mercenaries in the service of the Ottomans. Early in this period, Egyptians began to blend their new faith with indigenous beliefs and practices, leading to various Sufi orders that have flourished to this day. Eventually the power loss of the Abbasids in Baghdad has led for general upon general to take over rule of Egypt, yet being under Abbasid allegiance, the Ikhshids and the Tulunids dynasties were among the most successful to defy the Abbasid Caliph. At the beginning of the 9th century the practice of ruling Egypt through a governor was resumed under Abdallah ibn Tahir , who decided to reside at Baghdad , sending a deputy to Egypt to govern for him. Large sums also went to patronage and corruption.
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