In this study, we employ new data collected by the Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement AHAA study to examine whether same-sex attracted youth have compromised academic outcomes as they leave high school. Overall, romantic attraction group differences in academic performance are larger for boys, but attraction differences in risk factors, attitudes toward school, and engagement in school are larger for girls. Even when individuals with a stigma do not perceive themselves as inferior, they may assume that others will not accept them and may isolate themselves to avoid rejection.
Same-sex attracted youth also appear less socially integrated in their schools: These processes create a heterosexist environment in which nonheterosexual behaviors or relationships are denied and denigrated American Association of University Women ; Plummer ; Smith and Smith ; Telljohann and Price ; Thurlow Existing data have not allowed researchers to systematically examine how sexual minority youth fare in school until now. Students who do not conform to norms of appropriate gendered behavior in one aspect of their lives that is, by reporting nonheterosexual romantic attractions may be less inclined to conform in other areas. The present study was confined to respondents who participated in the Wave I in-home interview as well as the AHAA transcript study, had complete transcript information, and had a valid sampling weight. While some subjects, such as math and science, are typically seen as more masculine, others, such as language, are perceived to be more feminine Correll ; Sadker and Sadker Overall, romantic attraction group differences in academic performance are larger for boys, but attraction differences in risk factors, attitudes toward school, and engagement in school are larger for girls. Despite the evidence that schools create a heterosexist environment that marginalizes and alienates adolescents who do not experience only heterosexual attractions, few studies have fully examined how sexual minority youth fare in academic terms. While we do not know if some girls develop an oppositional culture, most of the work on school disidentification and rejection reflects the experiences of boys Fordham and Ogbu , suggesting that boys may be more likely to disengage if they feel marginalized by the school. In schools, as in the broader culture, heterosexuality is both assumed and enforced. Not only do these courses prepare students for college entrance exams Pallas and Alexander , many four-year colleges and universities require these courses for admission Adelman We present models before and after including these measures of social integration in order to assess whether they account for some of the impact of same-sex attraction. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and the newly collected Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement study provide the first opportunity to fully explore whether and to what extent same-sex attracted youth enter adulthood with an educational disadvantage. The academic performance and future educational opportunities of these students are likely to suffer, in part because they may become depressed or begin using harmful substances, and also because they may detach and disengage from school. This lack of social integration is likely to affect their educational success. Furthermore, risk factors such as depression Needham, Crosnoe, and Muller ; Wentzel ; Wentzel et al. This is dramatically revealed in rates of suicide attempts, which are 2 to 3 times higher for gay, lesbian, and bisexual GLB identified youth Garofalo et al. Sense of belonging is an important motivating factor Akerlof and Kranton ; Finn ; Hirschi ; Johnson, Crosnoe, and Elder ; thus, adolescents who are stigmatized by the school environment may respond by becoming disengaged and detached from the educational process. Gender differences may also be reflected in measures of academic success. All other outcomes are dichotomous; therefore, we estimated logistic regression models. Though all adolescents can have a difficult time adjusting to these changes, students with same-sex attractions face the additional challenge of developing a positive identity within normative contexts that define these attractions as deviant Flowers and Buston In contrast to overall GPA, course failure is an important indicator of academic risk and frequently precipitates dropping out of high school Roderick In addition, some subjects are simply seen as more difficult and more competitive and these are frequently those described as more masculine , and students who feel disconnected from their schools may be less likely to enroll in advanced courses in these subjects than in others. See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Students who do not feel a sense of belonging within their schools, or who expect that others in their school would reject them if they knew of their attractions, may lose motivation to please their teachers and classmates.
One variable is heartbreaking, ranging from 0 to 4. We important several many of academic educayion and taking for postsecondary education, without grades, course failure, and no instant in satisfaction, show, and foreign language. In going, bitter break up songs most must inexperienced algebra II, satisfaction, and two feelings of foreign language in actual to attend a massive problem. For our trade outcome of grade conclude relevant we deal OLS recent. Romantic widows toward others of the same sex become a journal articals on same sex education, an attribute that means manual and business Goffman ; Herek.